格林童話裡的奪嬰小矮人 - Rumpelstiltskin

quill mark

我過去曾經介紹過一齣我在 Cinemax 看到的 B 級片《猛鬼現形》(請參見:猛鬼現形 - Rumpelstiltskin (1995)),我在文章裡寫道:

電影是把《格林童話》中 "Rumpelstiltskin" 的故事加以改編,讓這個人物出現在現代,成為一個追討小孩的惡鬼。

……

童話中,Rumpelstiltskin 用他的魔法,解救陷入困境的少女,但他要求的代價,是女孩的第一個小孩。電影把這個特性稍作變化,加入了巫術、魔法等元素,讓 Rumpelstiltskin 成為索取嬰兒靈魂的殘暴惡鬼。

這位像是葉二娘的小矮人 Rumpelstiltskin,我就姑且將他稱為「羅姆培爾史提茲欽」吧!從初版的《格林童話》開始,這則故事一直排在第 55 則,之後的幾版,故事本身雖然沒有多大的變動,但卻多加了許多細節的描寫和人物心情的轉變,直到我們現在所看到的流通版本。

Rumpelstiltskin_1

初版與現行版的差別

我把我過去下載到的中文版故事貼出來。另外,根據我手邊初版中譯本《格林成人童話》裡的翻譯,把現今流通版本所多加的部分用灰字標出,讓大家看看初版時本故事「大致」的樣貌。

侏儒妖

從前,有個磨坊主,他的女兒長得美麗無比,而且聰明伶俐,為人精明,因而她父親總是不厭其煩地吹噓她,把她吹得天花亂墜。有一天,磨坊主應召進宮,他對國王吹牛說,他女兒能把稻草紡成金子。

Rumpelstiltskin1889 誰知國王是個見錢眼開的人,一聽磨坊主的話,馬上就吩咐召見姑娘。姑娘進宮之後,國王把她領到一間裝滿了稻草的屋子,然後給她一架紡車,吩咐她道:「明天天亮之前,你必須把稻草全給我紡成金子,不然的話,就處死你。」

儘管姑娘一再說明她根本沒有這種本領,可是國王聽也不聽,把門一鎖,揚長而去,屋子裡就剩下了她一個人。

姑娘坐在屋角裡,面對自己的厄運,愁腸百結,於是就放聲大哭起來。正在這時,屋門突然打開了,一瘸一拐地走進來一個小矮子,樣子滑稽可笑,他對姑娘說:「晚上好,姑娘。幹嘛哭得這樣傷心呢?」

「唉,」姑娘回答說,「我必須把這麼多的稻草全都紡成金子,可我哪兒會這個呀!」

「要是我替你紡,」小矮子說,「你拿什麼酬謝我呢?」

「把我漂亮的項鏈送給你。」姑娘回答道。

小矮子相信姑娘說的話,於是就坐到了紡車前。紡車不停地轉啊轉,發出歡快的聲音。不大一會兒,活兒就幹完了,滿屋稻草全都紡成了金子。

國王進屋一看,真是又驚又喜,可他的心卻變得更加貪婪。他把磨坊主的女兒關進另一間有更多稻草的屋子,吩咐她再把這間屋子裡的稻草紡成金子。可憐的姑娘不知如何是好,坐在那裡又哭了起來。誰知正在這時,小矮子打開屋門問道:「要是我幫你紡,你拿什麼酬謝我呢?」

「把這枚鑽石戒指送給你。」姑娘回答說。

於是,她的這個矮小的朋友接過了戒指,然後走到紡車前,紡了起來。他不停地紡啊紡,天亮之前,終於把屋裡的稻草全都紡成了金子。

國王一見這麼多閃閃發光的金子,滿心歡喜,可他仍然不滿足,就把磨坊主的女兒帶到了另一間更大的屋子,並且對她說:「要是你今晚把這裡的稻草全都紡成金子,我就娶你做王后。」

Rumpelstiltskin_22 國王走了,剩下姑娘一個人的時候,小矮子又來了,問姑娘說:「要是我第三次還替你紡金子,你拿什麼酬謝我呢?」

「我再也沒什麼可送給你啦。」她回答說。

「那麼,你得答應我,」小矮子接著說道,「等你做了王后,把你生的第一個孩子送給我。」

「那可萬萬不行。」姑娘心裡想,可是她現在已走投無路,就答應了他的要求。小矮子又一次把稻草全都紡成了金子。

次日清晨,國王又來了,發現一切如願以償,就娶了磨坊主的女兒做王后。

王后的第一個孩子出生了,她歡天喜地,卻把小矮子和她自己的諾言給忘了。誰知有一天,小矮子突然來到她的房間,提醒她不要忘記了自己許下的諾言。對這突如其來的不幸,她悲痛欲絕,只得提出將王國所有的金銀財寶都給他,作為交換的條件,可是小矮子說什麼也不答應。王后失聲痛哭,哭得像個淚人似的,小矮子見了心也就軟了下來,對她說道:「我寬限你三天時間,要是你在這三天之內能說出我的名字,你就把孩子留下。」

於是,王后派遣很多信使去全國各地,打聽沒有聽說過的名字。次日,小矮子又來了,她就開始把所有記得起來的名字都說了出來,什麼迪姆斯啦,班傑明啦,傑若米啦,等等。可是小矮子每聽一個都說:「我不叫這個。」

第二天,她把聽到過的滑稽名字都說了出來,什麼羅圈腿啦,小羅鍋啦,八字腳啦,諸如此類。可是小矮子每聽一個還是說:「我不叫這個。」

第三天,有個信使回來說:「我正在上山的時候,發現森林中有一個小棚子,棚子前燃著一堆篝火,一個滑稽可笑的小矮子用一隻腳圍著火堆蹦過來,跳過去,一邊蹦跳一邊唱著:

今天我釀酒,
明天露一手;
又唱又跳多快活,
明天小孩就歸我;
王后絞盡腦汁兒卻說不準,
本人名叫龍佩爾斯迪爾欽!

王后聽了高興得跳了起來。過了一會兒,小矮子又來了,進門便問:「王后,我叫什麼名字啊?」王后回答說:「你是不是叫約翰哪?」

「不對!」

「那你是不是叫湯姆呢?」

「也不對!」

「也許你叫龍佩爾斯迪爾欽吧?」

「肯定是巫婆告訴你的!肯定是巫婆告訴你的!」小矮子喊叫著,氣得直跺腳,結果右腳深深地陷進了地裡。他不得不彎下腰去,用雙手緊緊抱住小腿,用盡全身力氣才拔了出來。隨後,他便急急忙忙溜走了,這場虛驚也就結束了,大伙於是開懷大笑。王后後來再也沒有見到過他。

Rumpelstiltskin_3

我要特別說明一下,有的情節是全部重寫,而不是只有附加語句,故上面的灰字僅是粗略的標示,並不精準。不是說把灰字刪除,就是初版的文字。

下面是 Project Gutenberg 本篇故事的英譯全文

55 Rumpelstiltskin

Once there was a miller who was poor, but who had a beautiful daughter. Now it happened that he had to go and speak to the King, and in order to make himself appear important he said to him, "I have a daughter who can spin straw into gold." The King said to the miller, "That is an art which pleases me well; if your daughter is as clever as you say, bring her to-morrow to my palace, and I will try what she can do."

And when the girl was brought to him he took her into a room which was quite full of straw, gave her a spinning-wheel and a reel, and said, "Now set to work, and if by to-morrow morning early you have not spun this straw into gold during the night, you must die." Thereupon he himself locked up the room, and left her in it alone. So there sat the poor miller's daughter, and for the life of her could not tell what to do; she had no idea how straw could be spun into gold, and she grew more and more miserable, until at last she began to weep.

Rumpelstiltskin But all at once the door opened, and in came a little man, and said, "Good evening, Mistress Miller; why are you crying so?" "Alas!" answered the girl, "I have to spin straw into gold, and I do not know how to do it." "What will you give me," said the manikin, "if I do it for you?" "My necklace," said the girl. The little man took the necklace, seated himself in front of the wheel, and "whirr, whirr, whirr," three turns, and the reel was full; then he put another on, and whirr, whirr, whirr, three times round, and the second was full too. And so it went on until the morning, when all the straw was spun, and all the reels were full of gold. By daybreak the King was already there, and when he saw the gold he was astonished and delighted, but his heart became only more greedy. He had the miller's daughter taken into another room full of straw, which was much larger, and commanded her to spin that also in one night if she valued her life. The girl knew not how to help herself, and was crying, when the door again opened, and the little man appeared, and said, "What will you give me if I spin that straw into gold for you?" "The ring on my finger," answered the girl. The little man took the ring, again began to turn the wheel, and by morning had spun all the straw into glittering gold.

The King rejoiced beyond measure at the sight, but still he had not gold enough; and he had the miller's daughter taken into a still larger room full of straw, and said, "You must spin this, too, in the course of this night; but if you succeed, you shall be my wife." "Even if she be a miller's daughter," thought he, "I could not find a richer wife in the whole world."

When the girl was alone the manikin came again for the third time, and said, "What will you give me if I spin the straw for you this time also?" "I have nothing left that I could give," answered the girl. "Then promise me, if you should become Queen, your first child." "Who knows whether that will ever happen?" thought the miller's daughter; and, not knowing how else to help herself in this strait, she promised the manikin what he wanted, and for that he once more span the straw into gold.

And when the King came in the morning, and found all as he had wished, he took her in marriage, and the pretty miller's daughter became a Queen.

Rumpelstiltskin_29 A year after, she had a beautiful child, and she never gave a thought to the manikin. But suddenly he came into her room, and said, "Now give me what you promised." The Queen was horror-struck, and offered the manikin all the riches of the kingdom if he would leave her the child. But the manikin said, "No, something that is living is dearer to me than all the treasures in the world." Then the Queen began to weep and cry, so that the manikin pitied her. "I will give you three days' time," said he, "if by that time you find out my name, then shall you keep your child."

So the Queen thought the whole night of all the names that she had ever heard, and she sent a messenger over the country to inquire, far and wide, for any other names that there might be. When the manikin came the next day, she began with Caspar, Melchior, Balthazar, and said all the names she knew, one after another; but to every one the little man said, "That is not my name." On the second day she had inquiries made in the neighborhood as to the names of the people there, and she repeated to the manikin the most uncommon and curious. "Perhaps your name is Shortribs, or Sheepshanks, or Laceleg?" but he always answered, "That is not my name."

On the third day the messenger came back again, and said, "I have not been able to find a single new name, but as I came to a high mountain at the end of the forest, where the fox and the hare bid each other good night, there I saw a little house, and before the house a fire was burning, and round about the fire quite a ridiculous little man was jumping: he hopped upon one leg, and shouted—-

"To-day I bake, to-morrow brew,
The next I'll have the young Queen's child.
Ha! glad am I that no one knew
That Rumpelstiltskin I am styled."

You may think how glad the Queen was when she heard the name! And when soon afterwards the little man came in, and asked, "Now, Mistress Queen, what is my name?" at first she said, "Is your name Conrad?" "No." "Is your name Harry?" "No."

"Perhaps your name is Rumpelstiltskin?"

"The devil has told you that! the devil has told you that!" cried the little man, and in his anger he plunged his right foot so deep into the earth that his whole leg went in; and then in rage he pulled at his left leg so hard with both hands that he tore himself in two.

更多的對話與交流

我覺得,初版和最終流通版的不同之處在於,初版的故事演進比較平鋪直敘,故事中人物的交流不似最終版如此生動。最明顯的就是許多初版的客觀敘述,到了最終版都用對話的形式來表達(這點我無法用灰字標明)。

Rumpelstiltskin_33 另外就是人物性格的設定,和他們情緒的表現。初版是很簡潔地講述故事,人物的悲喜和性格並不多加著墨;最終版較重視情節的合理性,讓人物的行為和其處境、個性有較多的連結。

例如,最終版說少女是個「聰明伶俐,為人精明」 的女孩,而其父親「不厭其煩地吹噓她,把她吹得天花亂墜」,突顯這父親的好大喜功、誇浮自私。國王「是個見錢眼開的人」,對少女的辯解是「聽也不聽」,則看出這個國王不僅貪財,還是一個薄情寡恩的人。

少女因父親的虛容與國王的貪慾陷入困境,但她並沒有運用她「聰明伶俐,為人精明」的特性,唯一可勉強支持這個形容的,大概只有她初時曾向國王解釋「說明她根本沒有這種本領(紡草成金)」。

但國王對她的申訴置之不理後,少女只是不停地啼哭。可見這「聰明伶俐,為人精明」只是後來額外的添加,讓這女主角的優點能夠多樣一些,而不是如初版那般,只強調她的美貌。

內心掙扎的描寫

故事中,送子的約定是少女自己答應的,雖然她當時幾乎別無選擇,但格林兄弟可能覺得初版時對少女內心掙扎的描寫過少,讓讀者會有少女狠心棄子的印象,因此特別加入了她初聽到提議時的反應——「那可萬萬不行。」以及在她產子後喜悅的情緒——「她歡天喜地,卻把小矮子和她自己的諾言給忘了。」

最終版對小矮人羅姆培爾史提茲欽的描寫也生動多了,小矮人幫助少女,雖然都是有條件的(前兩次都是為了珠寶,最後又強要嬰兒),這種行為並不可取,但他竟也是唯一對少女的哭泣有所回應的,較之國王和少女父親的不聞不問,則更顯得小矮人是較富同情心的。

例如最終版小矮人首次出現時,是他關心地問少女:「晚上好,姑娘。幹嘛哭得這樣傷心呢?」而且最後那三天後猜不出名字才抱走孩子的寬限條件,也是因「王后失聲痛哭,哭得像個淚人似的……」 他才開出的。(「……小矮子見了心也就軟了下來……」 )

刪除國王的幫助

Rumpelstiltskin_43最終版解謎的關鍵,是王后派出的信差無意之間聽到小矮人自己所透漏。在初版時,於森林聽到 Rumpelstiltskin 唱出自己名字的,是外出狩獵的國王,並不是王后的信差,這應該是為了要讓國王的薄情寡恩得到呼應,因此連他的這點貢獻也將之刪除,換作旁人。

一般對羅姆培爾史提茲欽這個矮人的印象,就是他的暴躁易怒,氣到連腳都跺進地裡,想用力拔出,又把身體給扯斷。這也是在初版時所未見的描述。

藉由這一個故事,我以手邊的中譯版本來比對《格林童話》初版和現行流通版的差異。這乃是因為自從日本的桐生操出版了《令人戰慄的格林童話》之後,總有許多人被宣傳的文字所誤導,幾乎把「初版」的《格林童話》和色情書刊畫上了等號,並認為那才是《格林童話》的「真面目」!這是一種很荒謬的認知,以後有機會,再多進行一些這方面的討論。




Category: 3 意見

3 意見:

匿名 提到...

原來這就是郎普斯金的由來阿
跟他交易永遠要付出代價
只是這裡沒提到DARK ONE就是了@@

Fafner 提到...

您指的是童話鎮 (Once Upon a Time) 這部影集嗎?我沒看,所以不知道裡面有這個角色。以我看過的國外電影來說,我覺得Rumpelstiltskin算是他們耳熟能詳的童話人物,但我們這裡知道的人卻不多,或許是因為他的名字太長、太繞口吧。

克風麥 提到...

尋找Rumple的資料,無意間發現您的部落格!
實在太驚喜了!

另外樓上提到的影集,完全推薦給版主看!!太好看了

張貼留言